• I always bring the level down to -18 based on peaks using Hornet Plugins VUmeter, so the analog compressors after it will have ample headroom, not introducing distortion (unless I want it, and sometimes I do).
• FabFilter ProQ3. I use this to cut off the unnecessary mic lows and thumps as well as cutting out some of the low-mid room resonance that always happens, more or less. It’s amazing how a vocal immediately sounds way less “homebrewn” when you get the boominess 120–250 Hz out; I usually watch out for two separate peaks in that range.
• Universal Audio LA3A and LA-2 compressors. At some point I was experimenting with vocal comps, and just ended up having these two in a row: creates very transparent compression, and even if you squeeze the vocal really hard (7-8 dB), you literally can’t hear it. Just amazing. Also, as a bonus, if you run the signal harder into these, the analog-modeled input stage creates this sweet distortion that can be so useful if the vocal sounds a little too tame and some vibe is required. Kind of “radio-ish” distortion.
I get quite a lot of DMs and email about certain questions, so I thought I’d make a FAQ here to possibly ease up some DM/email action. I’ll add a few other things and general claims and address those.
• What are your rates? I’ve tried to make this unbelievably easy to find, and it’s the #1 Google hit for “fanu mastering”. https://fanumusic.com/mastering/ always has the latest rates.
• What is “VAT” and do I have to pay that? It means Value Added Tax and it’s a tax system for services in EU. I run a registered business and have to charge VAT of your country if you 1) live in EU and 2) do not operate a business yourself. I do not charge VAT if you do not live in EU. E.g., I do not charge US clients any VAT.
• There is the rate for mastering, as well as mixing + mastering, but not just mixing, so what’s the rate for that? I provide a full final product. If it was “mixed only” Continue reading Mixing and mastering faq→
• Slate Digital FG-Grey. This is an SSL 4000 modeling plugin, afaik. I mostly use it to tackle micro-dynamics if the mix has some really quick and peaky transients. This comp can do an insanely quick attack time (0.1 ms!) which is great for that, but you need to be careful to not introduce distortion with that. Why you need to squash those guys is they might trigger your other compressors. However, most of the time I squash those with Slate Digital Virtual Tape Machine, which is amazing on rounding off those peaks in a very musical fashion. And, I only do that if it’s needed (I never do any compression by default – actually I do hardly anything unless it’s needed). Modern transient emphasis tools cause problems sometimes when producers overdo them and don’t really listen to the mix without a limiter. Then, whey they disable the limiting and send the mix to me, it’s sometimes very peaky and overly punchy in a very snappy way.
• Fabfilter Pro-C. This is my trusted “VCA comp”. I only use this to tame strong and hard-hitting peaks – most of the time it’s the snare. Does a wonderful job in smoothing out drums that are hitting too loud. I never go for less than 10 ms attack (can be up to 30 ms), and always go for quickest release when doing that.
BTW, I’ve always found it’s easier to tame drums that are too loud than drums that are too quiet (e.g., if a snare isn’t loud enough, I either ask the producer to raise or use expansion – my fave expansion tool for that is Tokyo Dawn Nova EQ).
• UAD Shadow Hills.
This is a two-stage compressor.
In a nutshell, the first one is a slow compressor, which I use for smoothing out level variations between song sections. This less often happens in electronic music, but whenever I master rock or more acoustic styles, it’s natural that level rises in some sections. This can be desired, of course, but if it gets too loud in some parts, the optical part of Shadow Hills is a godsend. I always it as a “safety net” at least.
The second part is a fast VCA. I rarely use this for regular snare compression or such BUT it can work very, very nicely in adding a bit of squeeze and punch, which can largely benefit styles like techno and house if they’re slightly sloppy. If and when I do this, I always send the producer two versions: one with this added pinching and without, and most of the time they like it a lot.
• Manley Vari-Mu.
Yet another amazing slow “glueing” compressor. Simply put, the harder you drive the song to it, the more it glues its elements together. I often have it after the Shadow Hills, and this one adds a wee bit of coherence to the overall sound.
• UAD API 2500.
Now this is a special spice compressor that I don’t pull out that often, and you gotta be careful with this badboy.
This guy can add some seriously expensive-sounding punch to the mix. Kind of “hard-hitting”. Can work wonders with styles like hip hop where tempo is kind of slow but you want those drums to smack you!
• Izotope Ozone Dynamics.
Such an amazing Swiss army knife. A godsend in terms of multi-band compression. This is the only multiband comp I use.
I use it for sub taming more than anything else; bass music producers with inadequate monitoring often crank up the sub, and it’s my job to tame it. I’ll be honest, you can control the sub by massive amounts if need be, and you won’t hear it. I absolutely love this one.
The other bands are useful, too; I also use the high-mid band a lot…e.g., let’s say there’s a vocalist screaming too loud…this guy will probably help you with that.
As you know, I do mixing and mastering.
I often get just the premaster from the producer and I can’t touch the mix, so it’s my job to tackle the master issues, and these tools won’t let me down.
I’ll add that mastering compression is an often misunderstood topic. I can guarantee that every time there’s a question, “How do I make my song louder?” on a music group or forum, within the first five replies there’s someone saying “You gotta compress your song”. No. Compression barely has to do with raising the level of your song; compression mostly controls dynamics.
It’s the limiters job to raise the level (yes, yes, technically a limiter is a compressor with an infinite ratio, but there’s a reason limiters are called limiters and not compressors…I dare anyone to make their song louder using a traditional comp with an infinite ratio while keeping its punch…won’t happen).
Also, it’s good to be aware of these different compression types. I recently saw a person ask what compressor he should buy for his master channel, and I saw a ton of suggestions, while no-one was asking what kind of use he needs it for. You gotta be aware of how different compressors work…you won’t be able to treat drums that hit too loud with an opto-type compressor, for example, while a faster-acting comp is totally worthless in trying to smooth out varying levels in song sections.
I recently switched back to Pro Tools for mixing.
I used to use it for a while, then go back to Ableton Live due to some changes in Live, but I’m back in the PT land. This video is about why I’m doing it.
I want to emphasize: this is only for mixing. I’d never suggest PT for making music, as Ableton Live excels at that.
I’m still also doing all my mastering-only projects in Live, for which it works well.
See the video info field for a full list of things where I feel PT takes the cake compared to Ableton Live.
Quick though of the day regarding transients / level of drums in the mix.
These days, it’s easy to overdo transients with any transient designer. But it’s good to understand that when it comes to mastering and limiting, you WILL hit a wall at some point regarding transient level.
What am I getting at? Sometimes it happens that Continue reading About overcooking transients in the mix→